Saturday, August 13, 2011

Generating Tones with the Web Audio API

The Web Audio API is a W3C draft standard interface for building in-browser audio applications. Although the draft is well specified, it is almost impossible to find useful documentation on building applications with it.

In my quest to deeper understand HTML5 audio, I spent some time figuring out how the API works, and decided to write up this quick tutorial on doing useful things with it.

We will build a sine wave tone-generator entirely in JavaScript. The final product looks like this: Web Audio Tone Generator.

The full code is available in my GitHub repository:


The Web Audio API is draft, is likely to change, and does not work on all browsers. Right now, only the latest versions of Chrome and Safari support it.

Onwards We Go

Getting started making sounds with the Web Audio API is straightforward so long as you take the time to study the plumbing, most of which exists to allow for real-time audio processing and synthesis. The complete specification is available on the W3C Web Audio API page, and I'd strongly recommend that you read it thoroughly if you're interested in building advanced applications with the API.

To produce any form of sound, you need an AudioContext and a few AudioNodes. The AudioContext is sort of like an environment for audio processing -- it's where various attributes such as the sample rate, the clock status, and other environment-global state reside. Most applications will need no more than a single instance of AudioContext.

The AudioNode is probably the most important component in the API, and is responsible for synthesizing or processing audio. An AudioNode instance can be an input source, an output destination, or a mid-stream processor. These nodes can be linked together to form processing pipelines to render a complete audio stream.

One kind of AudioNode is JavaScriptAudioNode, which is used to generate sounds in JavaScript. This is what what we will use in this tutorial to build a tone generator.

Let us begin by instantiating an AudioContext and creating a JavaScriptAudioNode.

var context = new webkitAudioContext();
var node = context.createJavaScriptNode(1024, 1, 1);
The parameters to createJavaScriptNode refer to the buffer size, the number of input channels, and the number of output channels. The buffer size must be in units of sample frames, i.e., one of: 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, or 16384. It controls the frequency of callbacks asking for a buffer refill. Smaller sizes allow for lower latency and higher for better overall quality.

We're going to use the JavaScriptNode as the source node along with a bit of code to create sine waves. To actually hear anything, it must be connected to an output node. It turns out that context.destination gives us just that -- a node that maps to the speaker on your machine.

The SineWave Class

To start off our tone generator, we create a SineWave class, which wraps the AudioNode and wave generation logic into one cohesive package. This class will be responsible for creating the JavaScriptNode instances, generating the sine waves, and managing the connection to the destination node.

SineWave = function(context) {
  var that = this;
  this.x = 0; // Initial sample number
  this.context = context;
  this.node = context.createJavaScriptNode(1024, 1, 1);
  this.node.onaudioprocess = function(e) { that.process(e) };

SineWave.prototype.process = function(e) {
  var data = e.outputBuffer.getChannelData(0);
  for (var i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
    data[i] = Math.sin(this.x++);
} = function() {

SineWave.prototype.pause = function() {
Upon instantiation, this class creates a JavaScriptAudioNode and attaches an event handler to onaudioprocess for buffer refills. The event handler requests a reference to the output buffer for the first channel, and fills it with a sine wave. Notice that the handler does not know the buffer size in advance, and gets it from data.length.

The buffer is of type ArrayBuffer which is a JavaScript Typed Array. These arrays allow for high throughput processing of raw binary data. To learn more about Typed Arrays, check out the Mozilla Developer Documentation on Typed Arrays.

To try out a quick demo of the SineWave class, add the following code to the onload handler for your page:

var context = new webkitAudioContext();
var sinewave = new SineWave(context);;
Notice that works by wiring up the node to the AudioContext's destination (the speakers). To stop the tone, call sinewave.pause(), which unplugs this connection.

Generating Specific Tones

So, now you have yourself a tone. Are we done yet?

Not quite. How does one know what the frequency of the generated wave is? How does one generate tones of arbitrary frequencies?

To answer these questions, we must find out the sample rate of the audio. Each data value we stuff into the buffer in out handler is a sample, and the sample rate is the number of samples processed per second. We can calculate the frequency of the tone by dividing the sample rate by the length of a full wave cycle.

How do we get the sample rate? Via the getSampleRate() method of AudioContext. On my machine, the default sample rate is 44KHz, i.e., 44100 samples per second. This means that the frequency of the generated tone in our above code is:
freq = context.getSampleRate() / 2 * Math.PI
That's about 7KHz. Ouch! Lets use our newfound knowledge to generate less spine-curdling tones. To generate a tone of a specific frequency, you can change SineWave.process to:
SineWave.prototype.process = function(e) {
  var data = e.outputBuffer.getChannelData(0);
  for (var i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
    data[i] = Math.sin(this.x++ / (this.sample_rate / 2 * Math.PI * this.frequency));
Also make sure you add the following two lines to SineWave's constructor:
this.sample_rate = this.context.getSampleRate();
this.frequency = 440;
This initializes the frequency to pitch standard A440, i.e., the A above middle C.

The Theremin Effect

Now that we can generate tones of arbitrary frequencies, it's only natural that we connect our class to some sort of slider widget so we can experience the entire spectrum right in our browsers. Turns out that JQueryUI already has such a slider, leaving us only a little plumbing to do.

We add a setter function to our SineWave class, and call it from our slider widget's change handler.

SineWave.prototype.setFrequency = function(freq) {
  this.next_frequency = freq;
A JQueryUI snippet would look like this:
    value: 440,
    min: 1,
    max: 2048,
    slide: function(event, ui) { sinewave.setFrequency(ui.value); }

Going up to Eleven

Adding support for volume is straightforward. Add an amplitude member to the SineWave constructor along with a setter method, just like we did for frequency, and change SineWave.process to:

SineWave.prototype.process = function(e) {
  var data = e.outputBuffer.getChannelData(0);
  for (var i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
    data[i] = this.amplitude * Math.sin(this.x++ / (this.sample_rate / 2 * Math.PI * this.frequency));
Folks, we now have a full fledged sine wave generator!

Boo Hiss Crackle

But, we're not done yet. You've probably noticed that changing the frequency causes mildly annoying crackling sounds. This happens because when the frequency changes, discontinuity occurs in the wave, causing a high-frequency pop in the audio stream.

Discontinuity when Changing Frequencies

We try to eliminate the discontinuity by only shifting frequencies when the cycle of the previous frequency completes, i.e., the sample value is (approximately) zero. (There are better ways to do this, e.g., windowing, LPFs, etc., but these techniques are out of the scope of this tutorial.)

Although this complicates the code a little bit, waiting for the cycle to end significantly reduces the noise upon frequency shifts.

SineWave.prototype.setFrequency = function(freq) {
  this.next_frequency = freq;

SineWave.prototype.process = function(e) {
  // Get a reference to the output buffer and fill it up.
  var data = e.outputBuffer.getChannelData(0);

  // We need to be careful about filling up the entire buffer and not
  // overflowing.
  for (var i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
    data[i] = this.amplitude * Math.sin(
        this.x++ / (this.sampleRate / (this.frequency * 2 * Math.PI)));

    // This reduces high-frequency blips while switching frequencies. It works
    // by waiting for the sine wave to hit 0 (on it's way to positive territory)
    // before switching frequencies.
    if (this.next_frequency != this.frequency) {
      // Figure out what the next point is.
      next_data = this.amplitude * Math.sin(
        this.x / (this.sampleRate / (this.frequency * 2 * Math.PI)));

      // If the current point approximates 0, and the direction is positive,
      // switch frequencies.
      if (data[i] < 0.001 && data[i] > -0.001 && data[i] < next_data) {
        this.frequency = this.next_frequency;
        this.x = 0;

The End

As mentioned in the beginning of this tutorial, a demo of the full code is available at and the entire source code is available at

Do check out the W3C Web Audio API specification. Do check out the Mozilla document on JavaScript Typed Arrays.

Comments, criticism, and error reports welcome. Enjoy!


  1. The Audio Data API looks like a much better proposed standard, what are your thoughts on it?

  2. Tracking the oscillator's phase is a better way to avoid clicks when changing the frequency:

    for (var i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
    data[i] = this.amplitude * Math.sin( this.x * Math.PI * 2.0 );
    this.x += this.frequency / this.sampleRate;
    while (this.x > 1.0)
    this.x -= 1;

    Thanks for the super useful examples (in this and the other post)!

  3. @kripken: I don't know very much about the Audio Data API.

    @Tom: Yes, that is certainly a better technique. It was also pointed out to me by a few others soon after I posted this. Thanks, and glad you like the examples.

  4. hi mohit, just like to point out just a minor typo - in "Generating Specific Tones"

    freq = context.sampleRate / 2 * Math.PI

    instead of

    freq = context.getSampleRate() / 2 * Math.PI

    thanks for the article btw! :)


  5. also from your codes, should be the correct formula :)

    Math.sin( this.x++ / (this.sampleRate / (this.frequency * 2 * Math.PI))

  6. Thanks so much, this was very helpful.

  7. Hey, thanks for this great article. I was going to fork your project but it seems to have everything you've ever written in it, so I have created a new project which derives from your sinewave class. I've added support for different waveforms and phase modulation, with code and a link to a demo here:

    Future-wise I'd like to package up the oscillator separately as part of an audio library rather than have it associated with this phase modulation proof-of-concept. I also plan to refactor the phase modulation into a more generic modulator class (for vocoding purposes - something else I want to investigate) - but I am open to feedback and ideas via the GitHub issue tracker.

    Thanks again for helping get this started, I couldn't find any decent examples (or decent documentation) as to how the Javascript audio node was supposed to work, this was just the thing I needed.

  8. I'm really glad that the API is modular to boot, with input and output connections per node. It should ease the development of a modular synthesizer/tracker.

  9. Thank you for putting this together! I've been interested in learning about the web audio (specifically just playing sounds at a certain frequencies) and this is proving to be a nice starting place.

    One note though - it looks like they've changed the spec since you wrote this up. In sinewave.js, I had to change line 20 to this:

    this.node = context.createJavaScriptNode(256, 2, 2);

    Before the change I was getting a "SYNTAX_ERR: DOM Exception 12" error. It looks like the spec no longer allows the value 128:

    Anyway, thank you again for putting this together.

  10. Right now, it's:

    this.node = context.createJavaScriptNode(512, 4, 4);

  11. Hi there,
    I'm eagerly trying VexTab, but and being stiemed after I set up my staff, key, and time. I can't add notes...following instructions...any help?

    I get this message:
    Parse error on line 2:
    ...=Bb time=2/4notes
    Expecting '=', '[', ']', '|', ':', '(', 'NUMBER', 'h', '-', 's', 't', 'T', 'b', 'p', '^', '$', '!', '#', 'ABC', got 'EOF'

    When I have typed
    tabstave notation=true tablature=false key=Bb time=2/4
    (I used a full retune after 2/4)